HISTORY BOROBUDUR TEMPLE


In Indonesia, there is a huge building which still save a thousand mysteries, namely Borobudur.  According to history, Borobudur was built in the 8th century by King Samaratungga, king of the dynasty of ancient Mataram dynasty. According to legends, Borobudur was built by an architect  named Gunadharma, but the truth of the story is historically still in doubt.

If we look from a distance, Borobudur Temple looks like a staircase or a similar arrangement of building the pyramid and a stupa. Unlike the giant pyramids in Egypt and the Pyramids of Teotihuacan in Mexico; Borobudur is another version of pyramid building. Borobudur pyramid form  crater staircase will not be found in the region and any country.
If we are seen from the air, the shape of a lotus-like Borobudur Temple. Lotus is one of the symbols used in respect of Buddhism symbolizes purity and remind Buddhists to always keep your mind and heart to keep it clean despite being in an environment that is not clean.

In 1930, W.O.J. Nieuwenkamp never provide scientific imagination of the Borobudur Temple. Supported by geological research, Nieuwenkamp said that Borobudur stupa building but instead as a lotus flower floating on the lake. The lake covers a portion of Kedu lying areas that lie around the hill temple of Borobudur. Now, the lake has been dry.

The basic ingredients of building Borobudur is a rock that reaches thousands of cubic yards of them. A stone, weighing hundreds of kilograms. Remarkably, for the stone is not used cement glue. Between a rock only linked to each other, the stone top-down, left and right, and rear-front. When viewed from the air, then the form of Borobudur and relatively symmetrical figurine-statue. Another greatness, near Borobudur temple there
the Pawon Tempel and Mendut.  Apparently Borobudur, Mendut, and Pawon are in a straight line.

Borobudur Temple is a Buddhist temple, situated in the village of Borobudur, Magelang regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia.
The name Borobudur is a combination of words
Barao and Budur. Bara from Sanskrit means temple or monastery. While Budur derived from the word beduhur by meaning above. Thus, Borobudur means monastery on the hill. Borobudur Temple building crater shaped staircase consists of 10 levels, measuring 123 x 123 meters. Height of 42 meters and 34.5 meters before it was renovated after the renovation. This Buddhist temple has 1460 relief panels and 504 Buddha effigies in its complex. Six lowest level of a square, upper three circular form, and the highest level of Buddhist stupa-shaped facing westward. Each level represents the stages of human life. In accordance Mashzab Mahayana Buddhism, every person who wants to reach the level as Buddha had to go through every level of life is. 
  • Kamadhatu, the base of Borobudur, symbolizing man is still bound by   lust. 
  • Rupadhatu, four levels above it, symbolizing man who has freed himself of passion, but still tied to appearance and shape. At that level, put a statue of Buddha is open.
  • Arupadhatu, three levels above where Buddha placed inside perforated stupa. It symbolizes man who was freed from lust, appearance, and shape.
  • Arupa, the very top that symbolizes nirvana, where Buddha is residing.
Each terrace has reliefs that runs clockwise (towards the left of the entrance of the temple). In the reliefs, the Borobudur Temple tells of a story is legendary, among others: The story of the Ramayana and the Jataka. In addition, there are relief panels depicting the condition of society at that time. For example, the relief of farmers' activity reflecting the advance of agriculture system and relief of a sailing boat representing the advance of the time shipping was centered in Bergotta (Semarang).
All relief panels in Borobudur temple reflect Buddha's teachings. In the 10th century, a Buddhist from India named Atisha once visited Borobudur Temple. Thanks to visiting Borobudur and having Buddhist manuscripts from Serlingpa (one of the kings of the kingdom of Srivijaya), Atisha was able to develop Buddhism. He became abbot Vikramasila and taught Tibetans of practicing Dharma. Six manuscripts of Serlingpa was condensed into a core doctrine called "The Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment" or better known by the name Bodhipathapradipa.


The name Borobudur

Regarding the name of Borobudur, many archaeologists who interpret it, among them Prof. Dr. Poerbotjoroko
, Borobudur explains that the word comes from two words Bhoro and Budur. Bhoro derived from Sanskrit which means a monastery or a dormitory, while the word Budur derived from the beduhur, Balinese word meaning above. This opinion is corroborated by prof. Dr. WF. Stutterheim who argue that Borobudur means monastery on the hill.


Construction of Borobudur

Borobudur Temple was built during the leadership of King Samaratungga. Construction of this temple was completed in 847 AD Construction of this temple is assisted by a teacher from Ghandadwipa (Bengalore) named Kumaragacya a highly respected, and a prince from Kashmir named Visvawarman who is an expert advisor in the teaching of Tantric Vajrayana Buddhists.
Before restoration, the Borobudur Temple in ruins just as well as artifacts discovered a new temple. Subsequent restoration by Raffles and Cornelius in the Resident Hatmann, after that period is then performed in 1907-1911 by Theodore van Erp who rebuilt the temple from the ruins of the order form because of the time eaten up the form now. Van Erp is actually an expert on building techniques Genie army with the rank of lieutenant, but then attracted to research and learn the ins and outs of the Borobudur Temple, began his philosophy up to the teachings they contain. For that he tried to do a comparative study for several years in India. He also went to Sri Lanka to see the composition of the Sanchi stupa peak in Kandy, until finally van Erp discovered form of Borobudur Temple. Meanwhile, on the basis of philosophy and religion invented by Stutterheim and NJ. Chrome, which is on the teachings of the Mahayana Buddhist Dharma-Yogacara and there is a tendency also mixed with a flow-Vajrayana Tantric.

Research on the composition of the temple and brought philosophy itself requires a substantial time, especially if linked with other temple buildings are still one family. Just as the Borobudur temple with Pawon and Mendut which are geographically located in one lane.


Borobudur material

Borobudur is the second largest temple after temple Ankor Wat in Cambodia. Building area of ​​15,129 m2 of Borobudur temple which is composed of 55,000 m3 of rock, from 2 million pieces of rocks. Average stone size 25 cm X 10 cm X 15 cm. Pieces of the overall length of 500 km stone by stone the overall weight of 1.3 million tonnes. The walls of the Borobudur Temple surrounded by pictures or reliefs which are a series of stories that terususun in the 1460 panel. The length of each panel 2 meters. If the circuit relief is stretched so long about 3 km of relief entirely. The number of levels there are ten, 1-6 levels of a square, while the level of 70-10 round. Statues found around the temple buildings totaling 504 units. High temple of the soil surface until the end of the main stupa was 42 meters, 34.5 meters but now lives after being struck by lightning. Until now, the question of how to build the temple of Borobudur is still an unsolved mystery.

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